"Thunder and Lightning - The Stormy Relationship Between
Stonewall Jackson and A.P. Hill"
Presented by: Patrick Falci
January 12, 1998

 

The title of my talk is "Thunder and Lightning The Stormy

Relationship Between Stonewall Jackson and A.P. Hill. Now I like

to know who I am dealing with here in the audience. How many

Stonewall Jackson fans do we have? How many A.P. Hill fans do we

have? Lets start by saying that the relationship between Thomas

Jonathan Jackson and Ambrose Powell Hill begins long before the

start of the Civil War in 1861. We have to go back to 1842 when

they both entered the United States Military Academy at West Point.

 

Jackson was born in Clarksburg, Virginia, the western part of

that state. We all know that January 21, 1824 had been his

traditional date of birth but how many people have read Bud

Robertson's new book on Stonewall Jackson. Well, he has proven

that Jackson was actually born on January 20th at 11:45. Jackson

was raised by his uncle. Jackson was eight years old when his

parent's had passed away. He was brought up on a farm and his

activities included working on the crops and livestock. He even

worked at his uncle's saw mill. His schooling was very meager

because that part of Virginia was very poor. He was a very slow

learner but the one thing that was most important to Jackson above

everything else was his religion. At that young age, Jackson did

not belong to any particular religion but he did attend both

Baptist and Methodist services. So, this is the background of

Thomas Jonathan Jackson. He entered West Point fully educated, he

was a laborer, farmer, slow learner and he was pretty much a

loaner. Here's a quote, Jackson said, "it is not desirable to have

a large number of friends."

Now we go to the other side of the coin. Ambrose Powell Hill

was born in Culpepper, Virginia on November 9, 1825. His family

was wealthy and he basically didn't have to work. He was a very

good student and he enjoyed history as well as the outdoors and he

was an excellent horsemen. Here's where Hill's uneasiness with

religion came from. Hill's family was brought up with the

allegiance to the Church of England but when that new right of

Baptist revival movement swept through that area of Virginia, his

family became born again. But Hill protested, after all, A.P Hill

was a fun loving guy. He was not about to give up his dancing or

his card playing. So basically what happened to Hill is that he

became anti-religion.

So even before Jackson and Hill meet, they are coming from two

different worlds. In 1842 at West Point they have their first

encounter with the United States Military Academy and each other.

Upon Hill's arrival at the Academy he begins making friends

right away particularly Virginians but then he meets somebody from

the western part of Virginia, Thomas Jackson. He doesn't want

anything to do with Jackson at all. After all, Hill is an

aristocrat and looks down on Jackson. He thinks he is a country

bumpkin, a hillbilly. In Hill's eyes Jackson is no better than

poor white trash.

During their studies at West Point, Jackson has a hard time.

If Jackson has any free time, he reads his bible. Now to Hill

education comes easy. As I said, he's an excellent horsemen. And

when he has any free time, he goes off and gets together with his

Virginians and they start having card games, or they get together

to smoke. But, if there's ever an opportunity to go for an

adventure, Hill will go to New York City.

How many people have read Bud Robinson's book? A.P. Hill

Southern Confederate Warrior. Well on one such visit to New York

City, A.P. Hill contacted venereal disease. There are these sweet

little old ladies down in Virginia that condemn Bud Robinson, they

say, "he gave A.P. Hill venereal disease". But Bud says, "please

ladies, please, I didn't give it to him, I just discovered that he

had it." Because Hill had V.D. he had to take a year's leave of

absence from West Point. So, Jackson graduates in 1846, one year

ahead of Hill.

The war with Mexico breaks out and Jackson distinguishes

himself by being breveted three times. No other American soldier

deserved it more than Jackson during the Mexican War. A.P. Hill,

he's left behind at West Point. He finally graduates a year later

in 1847. He gets to Mexico but unfortunately most of the action

has subsided. Here's a description of A.P. Hill in Mexico, "he

wore a flaming red flannel shirt and a broad rimmed sombrero. He

carried on him a long artillery saber, a pair of large horse

pistols, two revolvers, and a large butcher knife. No Mexican was

safe." Most of the fighting had been over. But Hill was not a

happy man.

When the Civil War breaks out in 1861, the two Virginians find

themselves on the same side and on July 21st Jackson receives his

name Stonewall on the fields of Manassas. Hill again loses his

chance for glory because he is ordered to go to the lower part of

the Bull Run expecting a Federal flank attack. It never comes.

While Jackson will go on as Stonewall Jackson and becomes the

hero of the Confederacy particularly during the 1862 Shenandoah

Valley Campaign. In twelve weeks Jackson will fight five battles

defeat three Union armies and march his foot cavalry over 550

miles. He will capture 5,000 prisoners and a large amount of

supplies. But more than all this, Stonewall Jackson will

immobilize more than 60,000 Union troops much needed by George

McClellan in his plan to take Richmond.

Something special about George McClellan, George McClellan was

A.P. Hill's roommate at West Point. They also courted the same

woman, Ellen Marcy. Ellen Marcy and A.P. Hill were engaged to be

married but somehow, someway Ellen Marcy's parents found out that

A.P. Hill had venereal disease. Ellen Marcy ended up marrying

George McClellan. Now, don't feel too sorry for A.P. Hill. He

would marry Kitty Morgan, the sister of Confederate General John

Hunt Morgan.

On June 3, 1862, General Robert E. Lee assumed command of the

Army of Northern Virginia. That same day Major General Ambrose

Powell Hill christened his new command, the Light Division. It was

the largest division in the army and he trained it for speed.

On June 23rd Lee had a meeting with his division commanders in

Richmond. McClellan was about to take that city and his army is

moving upon it. So, Lee at his headquarters summoned James

Longstreet age 43, Daniel Harvey Hill, age 40, and Stonewall

Jackson age 38 who had just completed his spectacular Shenandoah

Valley Campaign. As a matter of fact, Jackson had just ridden 52

miles in fourteen hours just to be at that meeting. Also in

attendance was A.P. Hill the youngest general there at 36. The

meeting lasted four hours and Lee's plan relied on the timing of

Jackson. Now Stonewall said he could have his men, who were still

in the Valley, ready to take on George McClellan on the 26th. Now

the other generals thought that was cutting it a little bit too

close. Lee decided that the engagement would begin on the morning

of the 26th with Jackson already in position.

June 26th arrives and no sign of the mighty Stonewall. It

becomes noon and still no Jackson. Three o'clock in the afternoon

and A.P. Hill, who was a feisty general wanted to get into action,

and is wondering where's Jackson. Hill decides to take things into

his own hands and so he orders his Light Division to cross the

Chicahominy River to initiate this turning movement against

McClellan. Surely Hill thought that by the time he made contact

with the enemy Jackson would be there right? Isn't that logical?

Wrong! Jackson never shows up. Hill initiated the attack of that

Union force and the Battle of Mechanicsville was a disaster for the

Light Division.

The next day, the Battle of Gaines Mill, Lee orders both James

Longstreet and A.P. Hill to combine their forces and attack

thinking that Jackson would be there. Well, Hill's Light Division

and Longstreet's Division take an even greater beating. Why? No

sign of Jackson. He finally gets there after most of the action

had subsided and both Hill and Longstreet's men could fight no

more.

Let me say something about what happened right after Gaines

Mill. It's a premonition of something that is going to happen a

year later. Jackson was late for the Battle of Gaines Mill because

there was confusion - confusion over two roads going to that area.

Jackson took the wrong road. Now when Jackson finally shows up, he

arrives at Lee's headquarters and this is how Lee greets Stonewall

Jackson, "Ah, General I'm glad to see you. I had hoped to be with

you before." Shades of what's going to happen a year later in

Gettysburg with the arrival of J.E.B. Stuart.

Three days later, Longstreet and Hill were both ordered to

attack at Fraiser's Farm with the idea that Jackson again would

swoop around and support them. Well, Jackson got as far as White

Oak Clark and he just stops with the easy hearing of the sound of

the gun. Again, the Light Division is hit hard. So, you have

three good reasons why A.P. Hill does not like Stonewall Jackson.

He blames Jackson for the disasters at Mechanicsville, Gaines Mill,

and Fraiser's Farm.

In defense of Jackson let me just say that Jackson just

finished his campaign in Shenandoah Valley. He was totally

exhausted, his men were exhausted. Jackson was at an independent

command. During the Valley campaign he made all the decisions. He

was in charge. Here he had to communicate and coordinate his

movements with other generals to follow Lee's plan. And finally,

I think the third most important reason why Jackson was late in

arriving was because he did not have his map-maker, Jed Hopkins.

Jed Hopkins made the maps of the Valley. Anytime Jackson was going

to embark on a new campaign he always had Jed Hopkins make the map.

Jackson decided to leave Jed Hopkins back in the Shenandoah Valley

and proceed without him. There's defense for Jackson during the

Seven Days Campaign.

If anybody has the opportunity to go down to Lexington,

Virginia during the summer there is a theater company and they put

on a production called "Stonewall Country". There's one scene

called "The Thirty Days Freak Out" that talks about Jackson during

that time. I definitely would recommend it.

While finally the Seven Days ended with McClellan retreating

from Richmond. Robert E. Lee had saved the Confederate capitol.

Are there any Longstreet fans here? Well, Jackson wasn't the

only person Hill was having trouble with. There's James

Longstreet. John M. Daniel, he's the editor of the Richmond

Examiner. He had attached himself to A.P. Hill's Light Division

during the Seven Days Campaign. During the Battle at Gaines Mill,

he was wounded. When he finally returns to the paper, he started

writing a column about his exploits with A.P. Hill and the Light

Division glorifying it. Well, Longstreet did not care for that.

So, he started writing to the Examiner disputing a lot of the

accounts of the battle. Well, then he started giving his version

of the Seven Days to the rival newspaper, the Richmond Whig. Now

there's a newspaper war between the Examiner and the Whig. Hill

got furious. This is the last straw for A.P. Hill so what did he

do? He wrote a letter to Robert E. Lee. "I have the honor to

request that I may be relieved from the command of Major General

Longstreet.

Well, ill feelings for the two generals got to a point where

Hill challenged Longstreet to a dual. What was Robert E. Lee to

do? He could have one or two major generals dead from fighting a

dual so he acted quickly. Robert E. Lee transferred A.P. Hill

under the command of Stonewall Jackson. Hill was glad to get away

from Longstreet but as I mentioned before he didn't like Jackson

and he blames Jackson for the disaster during the Seven Days

Campaign. Literally Hill was jumping out of the frying pan and

into the fire.

Lee decides to write a message to Jackson. He knows there's

ill feeling between the two generals and so he wants to smooth it

out a little bit. This is the letter that Lee sends to Jackson,

"A.P. Hill, you will I think find a good officer with whom you can

consult and by advising with your division commander as to their

movements, much trouble can be saved you in arranging details and

they can act more intelligently." Well, since when did Jackson

ever confer with his subordinates? Robert E. Lee found Hill to be

a good officer, but Jackson had his doubts.

A.P. Hill and the Light Division were sent to Gordonville to

support Stonewall Jackson who was planning to attack part of the

Union army at the Dead of Dawn Post and the new Federals set at

Cedar Mountain.

On the night of August 7th, Jackson issued a set of simple

written marching orders, Major General Richard Ewell was to lead

with his division, Hill would follow and then Brigadier General

Charles Langer would close up the column. The starting hour would

be at dawn. Later that night Jackson changed the orders but failed

to inform Hill. At sunrise Hill's division is waiting for Ewell to

pass. Ewell had taken another road. So finally when Hill realized

that Langer's division was moving and not Ewell's, Hill basically

halted his division because he did not want to move his division

between brigades of another division. His halt upset Jackson very

much and he got furious with Hill. Beyond that Jackson also

thought that the Light Division was too big for Hill to handle. He

even suggested taking a brigade away. He thought it was too slow

in getting to formation and marching. The timely arrival of A.P.

Hill saves Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain.

Now after the Union was pushed away from Cedar Mountain, they

are in the vicinity of Manassas that same field where Jackson

received his name "Stonewall" the previous summer. On August 20th

preparations were being made to cross the Rapidan and take a

position. The movement was to have occurred as early as possible.

Now to A.P. Hill early as possible is dawn of day but to Stonewall

Jackson early as possible means the rising of the moon. Now

sometime after a moonrise, Jackson decides to go down to the camp

of A.P. Hill to make sure that division is already on the road

moving. He is furious when he sees that Hill's division is still

in camp at that time. Well then Hill was ready, he takes out the

written orders prepared by Robert E. Lee to prove that the movement

was to take place at dawn of day. What happened, Jackson decided

to change the orders to the rising of the moon.

Well, four days later Jackson was ready for his flanking

movement on the Union Army. It would be a march of 54 miles in two

days. The order of the march issued by Jackson provided for

Ewell's division to lead, followed by A.P. Hill's division with

Brigadier General William Cauliver bringing up the rear. The

placing of the Light Division was delivered by Jackson to show

displeasure to A.P. Hill. Nevertheless, the march was successful

and the Battle of Second Manassas was a great Confederate victory.

At the end of the Battle, A.P. Hill sent the following message to

Jackson, "General Hill presents his compliments and says the attack

of the enemy was at halt". Jackson was reported to have said in a

rare smile, "I knew he would do it."

Overall though Stonewall Jackson was not happy with A.P. Hill

during the Second Manassas Campaign. He would find fault with the

Light Division for marching too slowly, and then he would criticize

them for moving too fast causing stranglers to drop from the

column. Stonewall Jackson was rarely satisfied with the

performance of A.P. Hill up to this point.

Now after the victory at Second Manassas Robert E. Lee decided

to invade the North. On September 4th during their trip North,

outside of Leesburg, Virginia, another clash occurred between

Stonewall Jackson and A.P. Hill. It seems the Light Division was

moving a little bit too fast for Jackson. So, Jackson rides up and

decides to go to General Thomas, who was leading the brigade of the

division. He tells Thomas to halt his brigade so that the men

behind them would finally have a chance to rest and they can close

up the column and prevent stragglers. So, what happens? A.P. Hill

rides up and he sees that his own division has stopped. Somebody

has given them the order to halt without his permission. He rides

up to General Thomas and asked him who gave the order to the

division to halt. What does General Thomas do? He points to that

man, Stonewall Jackson. Hill is furious, and stomps away. Hill

goes up to Jackson, "Stonewall, if you plan on issuing orders to my

division, you have no need for a division commander. Take my

sword". Jackson tells Hill, to keep his sword but places him under

arrest and tells him to get to the back of the column. The command

of the Light Division is now under the command of General Brandt.

Just think how Hill felt at that time - humiliated. His own

division marching and he's in the back of the column under arrest.

Stonewall Jackson is in Maryland, and a North Carolinian

Lieutenant wrote in his journal, "General Hill marched on foot with

the rear guard all day through Maryland - an old hat slouched down

over his eyes, his coat off and wearing an old flannel shirt

looking mad as a bull." Can you imagine how Hill felt. Here they

are invading the North, this could be the final battle. This could

bring independence to the Confederacy and where's Hill? Oh has he

had it with Stonewall and placed under arrest of Jackson.

Well, Hill decided to take matters into his own hands. He

approaches Robert E. Lee and asks Lee if he could take over his

division until after the campaign and then there will be a court of

inquiry. Lee agrees. Just so happens that on September 10th while

approaching United States Military Arsenal at Harpers' Ferry, Hill

knew this is action was very important - this arsenal. On

September 15th Harpers' Ferry was captured. The take was 12,000

prisoners, 13,000 arms, 73 cannons, 200 wagons and much needed

clothing. Hill's roster shows there were only three men killed and

66 wounded. This capture of Harpers' Ferry, the United States

Arsenal is considered by many, including Dennis Frye, the greatest

victory ever for Stonewall Jackson in the war and the greatest

defeat suffered by the United States Army up to Pearl Harbor.

Jackson left the Arsenal in Hill's hands and rode off to join

Robert E. Lee at Sharpsburg. It was Hill and the Light Division's

duty to parole prisoners at the Arsenal. Well, September 17th a

courier arrives at Harpers' Ferry at 6:30 in the morning. It was

the Battle of Antietam and he said that Robert E. Lee needs all the

help he can muster. This is one of A.P. Hill's greatest moments.

In one half hour, he had his men on the road and pushed them 17

miles in seven hours to get there. He knew this was the

opportunity to save the Army of Northern Virginia and maybe the

entire country because at that time McClellan had overwhelming

defense fighting the Confederacy fighting the Army of Northern

Virginia. Lee had a very meager Army at that time. But, one thing

in the back of A.P. Hill's mind is that he knew he was going up

against his old foe George McClellan. He pushed his men, he got

them there at the right place and at the right time and when he did

would prove to Ellen Marcy who was the better man - him or George

McClellan. Like I said, A.P. Hill arrived at the right place and

at the right time and saved the army and Lee who knew disaster was

in sight was so overjoyed that Lee actually embraced A.P. Hill

right there on the field and that arrival of the Light Division

saved the Army of Northern Virginia.

The Light Division was finally on the move back to Virginia,

and what happened was that Jackson wanted to drop the charges all

together because of Hill's performance during the campaign. Hill

didn't want anything to do with it. He wanted a court of inquiry

to clear his name so Lee came to the rescue again. He promoted

Major General Thomas Jonathan Jackson to Lieutenant General and

gave him a corps. He kept A.P. Hill, a Major General, dropped all

charges and gave him back his command of the Light Division because

of his excellent performance during the Sharpsburg Campaign.

Jackson commanded the 2nd Corps, gave Longstreet command of the 3rd

Corps and A.P. Hill was back to his old self again as Major General

of his Light Division.

During this later part of 1862, winter set in and Hill decided

to write a letter to his good friend J.E.B. Stuart. Here's the

letter that A.P. Hill sent to J.E.B. Stuart:

"I suppose I have to vegetate here all of the winter

under that crazy young Presbyterian fool. I am like a

porcupine, all bristles and all sticking out too. So, I

know we shall have this match up before long. Hill will

get tired of helping Jackson after awhile and then he'll

get the damndest trashing. I shall get my share and

probably all of the blame for the people would never

blame Stonewall for any disaster."

December 13, 1862 down in Fredericksburg, the new Yankee

threat was commanded by General Ambrose Burnside. During that time

at Fredericksburg, Lee had a position, he held the heights there,

three nights. He placed Longstreet's men behind there and Burnside

kept moving his men up against that and getting slaughtered. But,

there was an area aside from Lee's Heights that went to Prospect

Hill. There he had Jackson's men and Jackson placed A.P. Hill's

Light Division in that area. There was a gap in Prospect Hill, a

sloppy area. That gap, the two sides of the gap, you had Brigadier

Generals James Baine Archer and Lange and their men of the Light

division. But the gap was going right between them. Hill saw the

gap, he knew it. Jackson even saw the gap, he knew it. He was

there to supervise the whole area.

In the summertime, spring and in the fall no one could have

gotten through but on that 13th of December, 1862 General George

Gordon Meade's Division broke through that gap. Luckily, James

Baine Archer rounds his men along with the assistance of Jubal

Early's men and fought those Yankees back and the Battle

Fredericksburg was a Confederate victory.

But today since we are talking about whose fault was it, who

caused that gap there. There was no reason for that gap to occur.

Well, Spring, Summer, Fall no one could have gotten through but

because this is winter that clumpy area is frozen over and there

was enough footing for those Yankees to get through. Well, I tell

you right now, I blame both - Jackson and Hill. Hill for being

there and not supervising the idea about closing that area.

Jackson, overall who is supposed to be overseeing the whole

division.

Now after the Confederate victory at Fredericksburg on

December 13th, A.P. Hill wants to remove the matter with Jackson

concerning the charges filed against. Jackson wanted to let it

rest but not Hill. He wanted to clear his name. When Jackson

heard this, he was fed up with Hill. Both generals filed court

marshal against each other. Now what could Robert E. Lee do? I

mean for the next four months the talk of Army of Northern Virginia

was the pending trial between Stonewall Jackson and A.P. Hill. Lee

was about to lose one of his two best commanders. Well soon

everything had to be put on hold because of the new Union advance

in the form of General Joe Hooker.

James Longstreet and part of the 1st Corps had been sent to

southeastern Virginia to gather much needed supplies. So, the

Battle of Chancellorsville would be fought between Joe Hooker's

Army of the Potomac of 130,000 men against Robert E. Lee and his

60,000 man Army of Northern Virginia.

 

As you all know on May 2, 1863 when the two armies face each

other, Stonewall Jackson made his famous flank march with 28,000

men including the Light Division. It was done leaving Robert E.

Lee with only 14,000 men to take Hooker's army. At 5:15 p.m.

Jackson gave the order to assault again. The surprise attack

caught the Federals off guard and many were on the ground on the

run.

Soon, darkness follows and much of the action subsided. But

during that evening Jackson and Hill and their parties were

reconnoitering the area to follow up the Confederate successful

attack when a volley was let loose from the 18th North Carolina.

They thought they heard cavalry approaching them but it was

actually the parties of Hill and Jackson. The 18th North Carolina,

part of Hill's division, fired and Jackson was hit. Jackson went

down and when that occurred Hill jumps off his horse, dropped to

the ground and avoided being hit and he rolls up and tells them to

stop. He went up to Jackson and cradled Jackson's head. He took

Jackson's belt off, took Jackson's gauntlets off which were both

blood soaked. When the stretcher bearers arrived and as they

carried Jackson away Hill said to Jackson, "I will try to keep your

accident from the knowledge of the troops." "Thank you, Jackson

replied." That was the last thing said between the two commanders.

A.P. Hill is now temporarily in charge of Jackson's corps but

then a quick burst of artillery came from across the way and hit

Hill in the back of the leg and he couldn't move because he was in

such great pain. Finally, they had to get Major General Robert

Rhodes to take over. Rhodes wanted to pass the command to J.E.B.

Stuart. Even though Stuart was a cavalry commander, the men had

confidence in Stuart. Stuart was summoned and did a magnificent

job with Jackson's 2nd Corps. The battle was won in

Chancellorsville and is considered Robert E. Lee's greatest

victory.

Now later that week Jackson's condition had weakened,

pneumonia followed the amputation of Jackson's left arm. Jackson

lapsed into delirium and in his final hours Jackson cried out,

"Porter, tell A.P. Hill to prepare for action, pass the infantry to

the front. Tell Major Harp." The devout Jackson had always hoped

to die on the saddle. In mid afternoon on Sunday, May 10th

Jackson's last words were, "Let's cross over the river and rest

under the shade of the trees."

Whatever Hill felt about the death of Thomas Jonathan Jackson

he kept to himself. Now the talk of the army was who can replace

Jackson. He commands the 2nd Corps. Well, Robert E. Lee had to

think about the possibilities. There were three of them, Richard

Ewell, who was always under Stonewall Jackson of the 2nd Corps.

Jackson knew Ewell. Ewell was out of commission because he had

been wounded at the Battle of Gulden just prior to the Battle of

Second Manassas. He was shot in the leg and his leg was amputated.

So while he was away recovering, Ewell had missed the Battle of

Second Manassas, Battle of Sharpsburg, Battle of Fredericksburg and

he missed the Battle of Chancellorsville. Now he was returned to

the army with a new leg and a new bride.

Who else did Robert E. Lee think could command the 2nd Corps -

J.E.B. Stuart. Why not Stuart. Stuart handled the infantry, the

2nd Corps during Chancellorsville and what a great victory. But

Stuart was a cavalryman. A true cavalryman.

The other possibility was A.P. Hill, his best division

commander. Lee decided to reorganize the Army of Northern Virginia

from a two corps system into a three corps army. He kept

Lieutenant General James Longstreet, commander of the 1st Corps and

newly promoted Lieutenant General Richard Ewell, commander of the

2nd Corps and newly promoted Ambrose Powell Hill, Lieutenant

General, commander of the 3rd Corps. Taking elements from the 1st

and 2nd Corps forming that new corps. With this the Jackson - Hill

feud had come to an end but so did the boldness of the Army of

Northern Virginia. That great army that had seen greatness in

their victories at Second Manassas, Fredericksburg,

Chancellorsville and that stalemate at Sharpsburg thanks to the

timely arrival of A.P. Hill were now yet alive. Nevermore would

Stonewall Jackson lead the 2nd Corps and A.P. Hill lead the Light

Division. The Army of Northern Virginia would be without its

Thunder and Lightning. The very next campaign after the death of

Jackson would end in disaster at Gettysburg.

Once and only once does General Robert E. Lee make this

statement after the war, "If I had Jackson at Gettysburg, I should

have won the battle and a complete victory there would have

resulted in the establishment of southern independence." By the

way, the map used by Lee during the Gettysburg campaign was the map

that was prepared by Jed Hopkins for Stonewall Jackson.

After Gettysburg, the war would continue for two more years

and A.P. Hill in time would become Robert E. Lee's most dependable

general. During the 1864 Campaign Robert E. Lee gave this advice

to A.P. Hill, "these men you command are not an army, they are

citizens defending their country. When a man makes a mistake, you

will have to do what I do. I call him to my tent, talk to him and

use the authority of position to make him to do the right thing the

next time." So during the Siege of Petersburg, A.P. Hill was

always in the right place at the right time defending the

Confederate lines protecting the city.

At this time, Hill's illness, that disease that was eating up

his body particularly during the war year finally taking its toll.

He would be in constant pain and suffered greatly especially while

on horseback.

On April 2nd, 1865 while riding with his chief of couriers,

Sergeant Tupper, on that day the Yankees had broken through the

Petersburg line and Hill was watching to try to rally his men to

close the gap when he encountered two Yankees. These two Yankees

Corporal John Mark and private Dan Logan of 138th Pennsylvania

Infantry they were hiding behind a tree and they had their rifles

and they took a beep on the two Confederates that were riding ahead

of them. The two Confederates saw the two Yankees and they charged

them. Hill yelled out to them to surrender. They leveled their

rifles and they both fired at the same time. Wolfert's shot missed

both Confederates but Corporal Marks his bullet rang true and

scraped Hill. It cut off his thumb, it hit him in the chest

and the bullet went right to his heart and killed him instantly.

He was dead before he hit the ground. All that Tupper could do was

grab Hill's horse, Chance, and after a while rode that horse

looking back seeing his dead commander on the ground. He rode off

to find General Robert E. Lee to tell the story of the death of

A.P. Hill.
 

On reaching Lee's headquarters while telling him the story,

tears welled in Lee's eyes and with a choking voice he said, "He's

now at rest and we who are left are the ones to suffer." Robert E.

Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia one week later on

April 9th at Appomattox Courthouse.

Five years later on October 12, 1870 as Lee is dying and just

before he says his last words "strike the tent" Lee cries out,

"Tell, A.P. Hill he must come up!".